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The principal eyes are also the only ones with eye muscles, allowing them to move the retina. Having no muscles, the secondary eyes are immobile. They achieve this by a telephoto -like series of lenses, a four-layer retina and the ability to swivel their eyes and integrate images from different stages in the scan.
The downside is that the scanning and integrating processes are relatively slow. There are spiders with a reduced number of eyes, of these those with six-eyes are the most numerous and are missing a pair of eyes on the anterior median line ,  others species have four-eyes and some just two.
Cave dwelling species have no eyes, or possess vestigial eyes incapable of sight. In fact, spiders and other arthropods have modified their cuticles into elaborate arrays of sensors.
Various touch sensors, mostly bristles called setae , respond to different levels of force, from strong contact to very weak air currents.
Chemical sensors provide equivalents of taste and smell , often by means of setae. Males have more chemosensitive hairs on their pedipalps than females.
They have been shown to be responsive to sex pheromones produced by females, both contact and air-borne. In web-building spiders, all these mechanical and chemical sensors are more important than the eyes, while the eyes are most important to spiders that hunt actively.
Like most arthropods, spiders lack balance and acceleration sensors and rely on their eyes to tell them which way is up. On the other hand, little is known about what other internal sensors spiders or other arthropods may have.
Each of the eight legs of a spider consists of seven distinct parts. Although all arthropods use muscles attached to the inside of the exoskeleton to flex their limbs, spiders and a few other groups still use hydraulic pressure to extend them, a system inherited from their pre-arthropod ancestors.
Most spiders that hunt actively, rather than relying on webs, have dense tufts of fine hairs between the paired claws at the tips of their legs.
These tufts, known as scopulae , consist of bristles whose ends are split into as many as 1, branches, and enable spiders with scopulae to walk up vertical glass and upside down on ceilings.
It appears that scopulae get their grip from contact with extremely thin layers of water on surfaces. The abdomen has no appendages except those that have been modified to form one to four usually three pairs of short, movable spinnerets , which emit silk.
Each spinneret has many spigots , each of which is connected to one silk gland. There are at least six types of silk gland, each producing a different type of silk.
Silk is mainly composed of a protein very similar to that used in insect silk. It is initially a liquid, and hardens not by exposure to air but as a result of being drawn out, which changes the internal structure of the protein.
In other words, it can stretch much further before breaking or losing shape. Some spiders have a cribellum , a modified spinneret with up to 40, spigots, each of which produces a single very fine fiber.
The fibers are pulled out by the calamistrum , a comb-like set of bristles on the jointed tip of the cribellum, and combined into a composite woolly thread that is very effective in snagging the bristles of insects.
The earliest spiders had cribella, which produced the first silk capable of capturing insects, before spiders developed silk coated with sticky droplets.
However, most modern groups of spiders have lost the cribellum. Tarantulas also have silk glands in their feet. Even species that do not build webs to catch prey use silk in several ways: Unlike many land-living arthropods ,  male spiders do not produce ready-made spermatophores packages of sperm , but spin small sperm webs on to which they ejaculate and then transfer the sperm to special syringe -like structures, palpal bulbs or palpal organs, borne on the tips of the pedipalps of mature males.
When a male detects signs of a female nearby he checks whether she is of the same species and whether she is ready to mate; for example in species that produce webs or "safety ropes", the male can identify the species and sex of these objects by "smell".
Spiders generally use elaborate courtship rituals to prevent the large females from eating the small males before fertilization, except where the male is so much smaller that he is not worth eating.
Gestures and dances by the male are important for jumping spiders , which have excellent eyesight. The only known exception is a spider from Israel, Harpactea sadistica , which has evolved traumatic insemination.
Males of the genus Tidarren amputate one of their palps before maturation and enter adult life with one palp only.
In the Yemeni species Tidarren argo , the remaining palp is then torn off by the female. In the meantime, the female feeds on the palpless male.
Observation shows that most male redbacks never get an opportunity to mate, and the "lucky" ones increase the likely number of offspring by ensuring that the females are well-fed.
Gasteracantha mammosa spiderlings next to their eggs capsule. Wolf spider carrying its young on its abdomen. Females lay up to 3, eggs in one or more silk egg sacs,  which maintain a fairly constant humidity level.
Baby spiders pass all their larval stages inside the egg and hatch as spiderlings, very small and sexually immature but similar in shape to adults. Like other arthropods , spiders have to molt to grow as their cuticle "skin" cannot stretch.
Spiders occur in a large range of sizes. The smallest, Patu digua from Colombia, are less than 0. Only three classes of pigment ommochromes , bilins and guanine have been identified in spiders, although other pigments have been detected but not yet characterized.
Melanins , carotenoids and pterins , very common in other animals, are apparently absent. In some species, the exocuticle of the legs and prosoma is modified by a tanning process, resulting in brown coloration.
Guanine is responsible for the white markings of the European garden spider Araneus diadematus. It is in many species accumulated in specialized cells called guanocytes.
In genera such as Tetragnatha , Leucauge , Argyrodes or Theridiosoma , guanine creates their silvery appearance.
While guanine is originally an end-product of protein metabolism, its excretion can be blocked in spiders, leading to an increase in its storage. The white prosoma of Argiope results from hairs reflecting the light, Lycosa and Josa both have areas of modified cuticle that act as light reflectors.
Juveniles of some spiders in the families Anyphaenidae , Corinnidae , Clubionidae , Thomisidae and Salticidae feed on plant nectar.
Laboratory studies show that they do so deliberately and over extended periods, and periodically clean themselves while feeding.
These spiders also prefer sugar solutions to plain water, which indicates that they are seeking nutrients.
Since many spiders are nocturnal, the extent of nectar consumption by spiders may have been underestimated. Nectar contains amino acids , lipids , vitamins and minerals in addition to sugars, and studies have shown that other spider species live longer when nectar is available.
Feeding on nectar avoids the risks of struggles with prey, and the costs of producing venom and digestive enzymes. Various species are known to feed on dead arthropods scavenging , web silk, and their own shed exoskeletons.
Pollen caught in webs may also be eaten, and studies have shown that young spiders have a better chance of survival if they have the opportunity to eat pollen.
In captivity, several spider species are also known to feed on bananas , marmalade , milk , egg yolk and sausages. The best-known method of prey capture is by means of sticky webs.
Varying placement of webs allows different species of spider to trap different insects in the same area, for example flat horizontal webs trap insects that fly up from vegetation underneath while flat vertical webs trap insects in horizontal flight.
Web-building spiders have poor vision, but are extremely sensitive to vibrations. Females of the water spider Argyroneta aquatica build underwater "diving bell" webs that they fill with air and use for digesting prey, molting, mating and raising offspring.
They live almost entirely within the bells, darting out to catch prey animals that touch the bell or the threads that anchor it.
Net-casting spiders weave only small webs, but then manipulate them to trap prey. Those of the genus Hyptiotes and the family Theridiosomatidae stretch their webs and then release them when prey strike them, but do not actively move their webs.
Experiments have shown that Deinopis spinosus has two different techniques for trapping prey: These two techniques have also been observed in other deinopids.
Walking insects form most of the prey of most deinopids, but one population of Deinopis subrufa appears to live mainly on tipulid flies that they catch with the backwards strike.
Mature female bolas spiders of the genus Mastophora build "webs" that consist of only a single "trapeze line", which they patrol. They also construct a bolas made of a single thread, tipped with a large ball of very wet sticky silk.
They emit chemicals that resemble the pheromones of moths , and then swing the bolas at the moths. The spiders eat the bolas if they have not made a kill in about 30 minutes, rest for a while, and then make new bolas.
Instead they release different pheromones that attract moth flies , and catch them with their front pairs of legs. The primitive Liphistiidae , the "trapdoor spiders" of the family Ctenizidae and many tarantulas are ambush predators that lurk in burrows, often closed by trapdoors and often surrounded by networks of silk threads that alert these spiders to the presence of prey.
Some jumping spiders of the genus Portia hunt other spiders in ways that seem intelligent,  outflanking their victims or luring them from their webs.
Ant-mimicking spiders face several challenges: In some spider species, males and females mimic different ant species, as female spiders are usually much larger than males.
Ant-mimicking spiders also modify their behavior to resemble that of the target species of ant; for example, many adopt a zig-zag pattern of movement, ant-mimicking jumping spiders avoid jumping, and spiders of the genus Synemosyna walk on the outer edges of leaves in the same way as Pseudomyrmex.
Ant-mimicry in many spiders and other arthropods may be for protection from predators that hunt by sight, including birds, lizards and spiders.
When at rest, the ant-mimicking crab spider Amyciaea does not closely resemble Oecophylla , but while hunting it imitates the behavior of a dying ant to attract worker ants.
After a kill, some ant-mimicking spiders hold their victims between themselves and large groups of ants to avoid being attacked. Many spider species are colored so as to merge with their most common backgrounds, and some have disruptive coloration , stripes and blotches that break up their outlines.
In a few species, such as the Hawaiian happy-face spider, Theridion grallator , several coloration schemes are present in a ratio that appears to remain constant, and this may make it more difficult for predators to recognize the species.
Most spiders are insufficiently dangerous or unpleasant-tasting for warning coloration to offer much benefit. However, a few species with powerful venoms, large jaws or irritant hairs have patches of warning colors, and some actively display these colors when threatened.
Many of the family Theraphosidae , which includes tarantulas and baboon spiders , have urticating hairs on their abdomens and use their legs to flick them at attackers.
These hairs are fine setae bristles with fragile bases and a row of barbs on the tip. The barbs cause intense irritation but there is no evidence that they carry any kind of venom.
A few spider species that build webs live together in large colonies and show social behavior, although not as complex as in social insects.
Anelosimus eximius in the family Theridiidae can form colonies of up to 50, individuals. For example, although Theridion nigroannulatum belongs to a genus with no other social species, T.
There is no consistent relationship between the classification of spiders and the types of web they build: Convergent evolution in web construction, in other words use of similar techniques by remotely related species, is rampant.
Orb web designs and the spinning behaviors that produce them are the best understood. The basic radial-then-spiral sequence visible in orb webs and the sense of direction required to build them may have been inherited from the common ancestors of most spider groups.
It used to be thought that the sticky orb web was an evolutionary innovation resulting in the diversification of the Orbiculariae. Their greater success may be because sphecid wasps , which are often the dominant predators of spiders, much prefer to attack spiders that have flat webs.
About half the potential prey that hit orb webs escape. A web has to perform three functions: No single design is best for all prey. However, there are no consistent differences between orb webs built for use during the day and those built for use at night.
In fact, there is no simple relationship between orb web design features and the prey they capture, as each orb-weaving species takes a wide range of prey.
The hubs of orb webs, where the spiders lurk, are usually above the center, as the spiders can move downwards faster than upwards. If there is an obvious direction in which the spider can retreat to avoid its own predators, the hub is usually offset towards that direction.
Horizontal orb webs are fairly common, despite being less effective at intercepting and retaining prey and more vulnerable to damage by rain and falling debris.
Various researchers have suggested that horizontal webs offer compensating advantages, such as reduced vulnerability to wind damage; reduced visibility to prey flying upwards, because of the back-lighting from the sky; enabling oscillations to catch insects in slow horizontal flight.
However, there is no single explanation for the common use of horizontal orb webs. Spiders often attach highly visible silk bands, called decorations or stabilimenta, to their webs.
Field research suggests that webs with more decorative bands captured more prey per hour. There are several unusual variants of orb web, many of them convergently evolved, including: However, the significance of many variations is unclear.
In , Skylab 3 took two orb-web spiders into space to test their web-spinning capabilities in zero gravity. At first, both produced rather sloppy webs, but they adapted quickly.
Members of the family Theridiidae weave irregular, tangled, three-dimensional webs, popularly known as cobwebs. There seems to be an evolutionary trend towards a reduction in the amount of sticky silk used, leading to its total absence in some species.
The construction of cobwebs is less stereotyped than that of orb-webs, and may take several days. The Linyphiidae generally make horizontal but uneven sheets, with tangles of stopping threads above.
Insects that hit the stopping threads fall onto the sheet or are shaken onto it by the spider, and are held by sticky threads on the sheet until the spider can attack from below.
Although the fossil record of spiders is considered poor,  almost species have been described from fossils.
Hence Attercopus and the similar Permian arachnid Permarachne may not have been true spiders, and probably used silk for lining nests or producing egg-cases rather than for building webs.
Several Carboniferous spiders were members of the Mesothelae , a primitive group now represented only by the Liphistiidae.
Some Triassic mygalomorphs appear to be members of the family Hexathelidae , whose modern members include the notorious Sydney funnel-web spider , and their spinnerets appear adapted for building funnel-shaped webs to catch jumping insects.
Araneomorphae account for the great majority of modern spiders, including those that weave the familiar orb-shaped webs. The Jurassic and Cretaceous periods provide a large number of fossil spiders, including representatives of many modern families.
It is now agreed that spiders Araneae are monophyletic i. The cladogram on the right is based on J. Other views include proposals that: The appearance of several multi-way branchings in the tree on the right shows that there are still uncertainties about relationships between the groups involved.
Arachnids lack some features of other chelicerates, including backward-pointing mouths and gnathobases "jaw bases" at the bases of their legs;  both of these features are part of the ancestral arthropod feeding system.
Spiders are divided into two suborders, Mesothelae and Opisthothelae , of which the latter contains two infraorders, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae.
Nearly 46, living species of spiders order Araneae have been identified and as of grouped into about families and about 4, genera by arachnologists.
The only living members of the primitive Mesothelae are the family Liphistiidae , found only in Southeast Asia , China , and Japan.
Members of the genus Liphistius run silk " tripwires " outwards from their tunnels to help them detect approaching prey, while those of genus Heptathela do not and instead rely on their built-in vibration sensors.
The extinct families Arthrolycosidae , found in Carboniferous and Permian rocks, and Arthromygalidae , so far found only in Carboniferous rocks, have been classified as members of the Mesothelae.
The Mygalomorphae, which first appeared in the Triassic period,  are generally heavily built and hairy, with large, robust chelicerae and fangs.
However, mygalomorphs cannot produce the pirifom silk that the Araneomorphae use as instant adhesive to glue silk to surfaces or to other strands of silk, and this makes web construction more difficult for mygalomorphs.
Since mygalomorphs rarely "balloon" by using air currents for transport, their populations often form clumps. Although spiders are widely feared, only a few species are dangerous to people.
Their venom, although they rarely inject much, has resulted in 13 attributed human deaths over 50 years. There were about reliably reported deaths from spider bites in the 20th century,  compared to about 1, from jellyfish stings.
Even when verification had occurred, details of the treatment and its effects were often lacking. Spider venoms may be a less polluting alternative to conventional pesticides , as they are deadly to insects but the great majority are harmless to vertebrates.
It may be possible to target specific pests by engineering genes for the production of spider toxins into viruses that infect species such as cotton bollworms.
Spiders can also be used as food. Arachnophobia is a specific phobia —it is the abnormal fear of spiders or anything reminiscent of spiders, such as webs or spider-like shapes.
Spiders have been the focus of stories and mythologies of various cultures for centuries. In some cultures, spiders have symbolized patience due to their hunting technique of setting webs and waiting for prey, as well as mischief and malice due to their venomous bites.
Web-spinning also caused the association of the spider with creation myths, as they seem to have the ability to produce their own worlds.
The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Spider disambiguation.
AI also reduces the need for keeping potentially dangerous bulls on the farm. Male calves are sold to be raised for beef or veal.
A cow will calve or freshen about once a year, until she is culled because of declining production, infertility or other health problems.
Then the cow will be sold, most often going to slaughter. Dairy plants process the raw milk they receive from farmers so as to extend its marketable life.
Two main types of processes are employed: Today, milk is separated by huge machines in bulk into cream and skim milk.
The cream is processed to produce various consumer products, depending on its thickness, its suitability for culinary uses and consumer demand, which differs from place to place and country to country.
Some milk is dried and powdered, some is condensed by evaporation mixed with varying amounts of sugar and canned. Most cream from New Zealand and Australian factories is made into butter.
This is done by churning the cream until the fat globules coagulate and form a monolithic mass. This butter mass is washed and, sometimes, salted to improve keeping qualities.
The residual buttermilk goes on to further processing. At a later stage these packages are broken down into home-consumption sized packs.
The product left after the cream is removed is called skim, or skimmed, milk. To make a consumable liquid a portion of cream is returned to the skim milk to make low fat milk semi-skimmed for human consumption.
By varying the amount of cream returned, producers can make a variety of low-fat milks to suit their local market. Whole milk is also made by adding cream back to the skim to form a standardized product.
Other products, such as calcium , vitamin D , and flavouring, are also added to appeal to consumers. Casein is the predominant phosphoprotein found in fresh milk.
It has a very wide range of uses from being a filler for human foods, such as in ice cream , to the manufacture of products such as fabric , adhesives , and plastics.
Cheese is another product made from milk. Whole milk is reacted to form curds that can be compressed, processed and stored to form cheese.
In countries where milk is legally allowed to be processed without pasteurization , a wide range of cheeses can be made using the bacteria found naturally in the milk.
In most other countries, the range of cheeses is smaller and the use of artificial cheese curing is greater. Whey is also the byproduct of this process.
Some people with lactose intolerance are surprisingly able to eat certain types of cheese. This is because some traditionally made hard cheeses , and soft ripened cheeses may create less reaction than the equivalent amount of milk because of the processes involved.
Fermentation and higher fat content contribute to lesser amounts of lactose. In addition, the aging methods of traditional cheeses sometimes over two years reduce their lactose content to practically nothing.
Ageing of some cheeses is governed by regulations;  in other cases there is no quantitative indication of degree of ageing and concomitant lactose reduction, and lactose content is not usually indicated on labels.
In earlier times, whey or milk serum was considered to be a waste product and it was, mostly, fed to pigs as a convenient means of disposal.
Beginning about , and mostly since about , lactose and many other products, mainly food additives, are made from both casein and cheese whey.
Yogurt or yoghurt making is a process similar to cheese making, only the process is arrested before the curd becomes very hard.
Milk is also processed by various drying processes into powders. Whole milk, skim milk, buttermilk, and whey products are dried into a powder form and used for human and animal consumption.
The main difference between production of powders for human or for animal consumption is in the protection of the process and the product from contamination.
Kumis is produced commercially in Central Asia. Originally, milking and processing took place on the dairy farm itself.
Later, cream was separated from the milk by machine on the farm, and transported to a factory to be made into butter.
The skim milk was fed to pigs. This allowed for the high cost of transport taking the smallest volume high-value product , primitive trucks and the poor quality of roads.
Only farms close to factories could afford to take whole milk, which was essential for cheesemaking in industrial quantities, to them.
These proved impractical for transport by road or rail, and so the milk churn was introduced, based on the tall conical shape of the butter churn.
Later large railway containers, such as the British Railway Milk Tank Wagon were introduced, enabling the transport of larger quantities of milk, and over longer distances.
The development of refrigeration and better road transport, in the late s, has meant that most farmers milk their cows and only temporarily store the milk in large refrigerated bulk tanks , from where it is later transported by truck to central processing facilities.
Milking machines are used to harvest milk from cows when manual milking becomes inefficient or labour-intensive. One early model was patented in It is made up of a claw, four teatcups, Shells and rubber liners long milk tube, long pulsation tube, and a pulsator.
The claw is an assembly that connects the short pulse tubes and short milk tubes from the teatcups to the long pulse tube and long milk tube.
Cluster assembly Claws are commonly made of stainless steel or plastic or both. Teatcups are composed of a rigid outer shell stainless steel or plastic that holds a soft inner liner or inflation.
Transparent sections in the shell may allow viewing of liner collapse and milk flow. The annular space between the shell and liner is called the pulse chamber.
Milking machines work in a way that is different from hand milking or calf suckling. Continuous vacuum is applied inside the soft liner to massage milk from the teat by creating a pressure difference across the teat canal or opening at the end of the teat.
Vacuum also helps keep the machine attached to the cow. The vacuum applied to the teat causes congestion of teat tissues accumulation of blood and other fluids.
Atmospheric air is admitted into the pulsation chamber about once per second the pulsation rate to allow the liner to collapse around the end of teat and relieve congestion in the teat tissue.
The ratio of the time that the liner is open milking phase and closed rest phase is called the pulsation ratio. The four streams of milk from the teatcups are usually combined in the claw and transported to the milkline, or the collection bucket usually sized to the output of one cow in a single milk hose.
Milk is then transported manually in buckets or with a combination of airflow and mechanical pump to a central storage vat or bulk tank.
Milk is refrigerated on the farm in most countries either by passing through a heat-exchanger or in the bulk tank, or both. The photo to the right shows a bucket milking system with the stainless steel bucket visible on the far side of the cow.
The two rigid stainless steel teatcup shells applied to the front two quarters of the udder are visible. The top of the flexible liner is visible at the top of the shells as are the short milk tubes and short pulsation tubes extending from the bottom of the shells to the claw.
The bottom of the claw is transparent to allow observation of milk flow. When milking is completed the vacuum to the milking unit is shut off and the teatcups are removed.
Milking machines keep the milk enclosed and safe from external contamination. Milk contact surfaces must comply with regulations requiring food-grade materials typically stainless steel and special plastics and rubber compounds and are easily cleaned.
Most milking machines are powered by electricity but, in case of electrical failure, there can be an alternative means of motive power, often an internal combustion engine , for the vacuum and milk pumps.
This type of milking facility was the first development, after open-paddock milking, for many farmers. The building was a long, narrow, lean-to shed that was open along one long side.
The cows were held in a yard at the open side and when they were about to be milked they were positioned in one of the bails stalls. Usually the cows were restrained in the bail with a breech chain and a rope to restrain the outer back leg.
The cow could not move about excessively and the milker could expect not to be kicked or trampled while sitting on a three-legged stool and milking into a bucket.
When each cow was finished she backed out into the yard again. The milking equipment was much as today, a vacuum from a pump, pulsators, a claw-piece with pipes leading to the four shells and liners that stimulate and suck the milk from the teat.
The milk went into churns, via a cooler. As herd sizes increased a door was set into the front of each bail so that when the milking was done for any cow the milker could, after undoing the leg-rope and with a remote link, open the door and allow her to exit to the pasture.
The door was closed, the next cow walked into the bail and was secured. When milking machines were introduced bails were set in pairs so that a cow was being milked in one paired bail while the other could be prepared for milking.
This is the same as for Swingover Milking Parlours as described below except that the cups are loaded on the udder from the side.
As herd numbers increased it was easier to double-up the cup-sets and milk both cows simultaneously than to increase the number of bails.
About 50 cows an hour can be milked in a shed with 8 bails by one person. Using the same teat cups for successive cows has the danger of transmitting infection, mastitis, from one cow to another.
Some farmers have devised their own ways to disinfect the clusters between cows. After washing the udder and teats the cups of the milking machine are applied to the cows, from the rear of their hind legs, on both sides of the working area.
Large herringbone sheds can milk up to cows efficiently with two people. Swingover parlours are the same as herringbone parlours except they have only one set of milking cups to be shared between the two rows of cows, as one side is being milked the cows on the other side are moved out and replaced with unmilked ones.
The advantage of this system is that it is less costly to equip, however it operates at slightly better than half-speed and one would not normally try to milk more than about cows with one person.
Rotary milking sheds also known as Rotary milking parlor consist of a turntable with about 12 to individual stalls for cows around the outer edge.
The turntable is turned by an electric-motor drive at a rate that one turn is the time for a cow to be milked completely.
As an empty stall passes the entrance a cow steps on, facing the center, and rotates with the turntable. The next cow moves into the next vacant stall and so on.
The operator, or milker, cleans the teats, attaches the cups and does any other feeding or whatever husbanding operations that are necessary.
Cows are milked as the platform rotates. The milker, or an automatic device, removes the milking machine cups and the cow backs out and leaves at an exit just before the entrance.
The rotary system is capable of milking very large herds—over a thousand cows. Current automatic milking sheds use the voluntary milking VM method.
These allow the cows to voluntarily present themselves for milking at any time of the day or night, although repeat visits may be limited by the farmer through computer software.
A robot arm is used to clean teats and apply milking equipment, while automated gates direct cow traffic, eliminating the need for the farmer to be present during the process.
The entire process is computer controlled. Each bail might have a box into which such feed is delivered as the cow arrives so that she is eating while being milked.
A computer can read the eartag of each animal to ration the correct individual supplement. The holding yard at the entrance of the shed is important as a means of keeping cows moving into the shed.
Most yards have a powered gate that ensures that the cows are kept close to the shed. Water is a vital commodity on a dairy farm: Pumps and reservoirs are common at milking facilities.
Water can be warmed by heat transfer with milk. From there it is pumped by a mechanical pump and cooled by a heat exchanger.
The milk is then stored in a large vat, or bulk tank , which is usually refrigerated until collection for processing. In countries where cows are grazed outside year-round, there is little waste disposal to deal with.
The most concentrated waste is at the milking shed, where the animal waste may be liquefied during the water-washing process or left in a more solid form, either to be returned to be used on farm ground as organic fertilizer.
In the associated milk processing factories, most of the waste is washing water that is treated, usually by composting, and spread on farm fields in either liquid or solid form.
This is much different from half a century ago, when the main products were butter, cheese and casein, and the rest of the milk had to be disposed of as waste sometimes as animal feed.
In dairy-intensive areas, various methods have been proposed for disposing of large quantities of milk. Large application rates of milk onto land, or disposing in a hole, is problematic as the residue from the decomposing milk will block the soil pores and thereby reduce the water infiltration rate through the soil profile.
As recovery of this effect can take time, any land-based application needs to be well managed and considered.